Valentina Fedchenko

Εξαρχαϊσμός στην Ελληνική γλώσσα της Κωνσταντινούπολης του ΙΘ΄ αιώνα


The Greek language of Constantinople was formed in a language contact situation both within the Greek language (contact with other Greek dialects through the internal population migration) and with other languages (first of all, with Turkish and French). The bilingual poetic anthologies, published in Constantinople during the XIX c., seem to present the given linguistic situation in written form. The bilingual printed poetry gained wide distribution in the city through the fashion for Ottoman secular music and through the forming of the concept «εξωτερική μουσική». The Greek psalmists were the anthologies publishers and compilers, while the editions were intended for professional musicians use, namely for performers or teachers, well educated with language skills in both Greek and Turkish. The authors address to their readers in Greek, that was subject to noticeable changes during the XIX c. In this paper the Greek linguistic features from the bilingual anthologies prefaces are analyzed. Since the tradition described represented a homogeneous social phenomenon, it is possible to trace the linguistic stylistic development in the frame of a homogeneous social group, sometimes the matter concerns one author’s language style. The linguistic features observed in the prefaces can be divided into two types: caused by language archaization and caused by purism. The comparison of linguistic data with the prefaces ideological contents reveals the connection between the artificial linguistic changes and the publishers’ political views. In particular, the prenationalistic and nationalistic archaization phenomena differ according to their linguistic substance: 1) in the first case the obvious orientation toward the certain more ancient text tradition (Byzantine and Ancient Greek musical treatises) is can be ascertained, and the archaizing elements appear in certain ancient grammatical forms and by borrowing the Ancient Greek musical terminology on the lexical level, and 2) in the second case a purposeful archaization on all the linguistic levels occurs, and a systematic modeling (reconstruction?) of Ancient Greek language can be maintained. In this presentation the both types will be discussed on the concrete examples. The purist tendencies resulted in avoiding lexical borrowings, which were characteristic feature of the Constantinopolitan dialect at that time. Nevertheless, the publishers realized that the purism contradicted in a way to the main constitutive characteristic of the tradition, namely to its bilingual nature. This contradiction was solved by presenting of the anthologies tradition in the frame of the Helleno-Ottomanism concept and by declaration of Greek-Turkish bilingualism as the main characteristic of the Ottoman Greeks, due to which the Constantinopolitan Greeks remained beyond the bounds of the official Greek state nationalistic ideology. Thus, the common in the XIX c. model “one nation – one language” was used, with the only correction that in this case “the language” was substituted for the bilingual combination «Greek – Turkish»

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